On March 31, 1964 the Armed Forces carry out a military coup in 1964, ousting João Goulart who went into exile in Uruguay. Among the features acquired by governments arising from the military coup stand out combat subversion committed by guerrillas of the leftist orientation, the deletion of some elements of the constitutional rights and institutions linked to the alleged coup attempt by the Communists, and a strong press censorship, after the issue of AI-5 of December 13, 1968.
In 1965, the Institutional Act No. 2, all the then existing political parties are declared extinct. Only two parties were allowed, the National Renewal Alliance (ARENA), and the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) , which came to serve as a refuge for all the left and far left politics.
On March 15, 1967, the sixth Brazilian Constitution enacted by Congress, institutionalizing the movement and establishing indirect elections for president held via electoral college, this directly elected. From that day the institutional acts downloaded since 1964 were repealed. That same day, before the growth of protest movements to the military regime, General Arthur da Costa e Silva assumed the presidency. But this institutional normality given by the constitution of 1967 was short-lived.
On December 13, 1968, Costa e Silva closed the Congress and ruled the Institutional Act No. 5, the AI-5, which gave him the right to close the Parliament, cease political rights and suppress the right of habeas corpus.
In 1969, Costa e Silva suffered a stroke and was incapacitated, a junta composed of the commanders of the Armed Forces took power. In October, General Medici took office as elected by the National Congress that he asked that it be reopened president.
In 1974, General Ernesto Geisel became president, having to face serious economic problems, caused by the debt created by the Medici government, exacerbated by the international oil crisis, and a high inflation rate.
Geisel began a democratic opening that was continued by his successor, General Figueiredo (1979-85). Figueiredo allowed the return of political exiles during the 1960s and 70s, and guerrillas of the militants time of Medici government were amnestied.
The military regime ends with indirect elections for president in 1984 and the first elected civilian president since the military coup was Tancredo Neves. He does not quite take due to illness and then takes José Sarney.