Historically, space exploration began with the launch of the artificial satellite Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957. This event sparked a space race for the conquest of space between the USSR and the United States, culminating in the arrival of man on the moon.
The Space Race was a dispute in the second half of the twentieth century between the Soviet Union and the United States for supremacy in space exploration and technology. Between 1957 and 1975, the rivalry between the two superpowers during the Cold War focused on achieving firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbols of technological and ideological superiority of each country. The Space Race involved pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, human spaceflight sub orbital and orbital around the Earth and manned trips to the moon. The competition actually began with the launch of the Soviet artificial satellite Sputnik 1 in 1957 and ended with the Apollo- Soyuz cooperative project in 1975. Test Project Apollo-Soyuz then came to symbolize a partial easing of strained relations between the USSR and the United States.
The space race had its origins in the arms race that occurred shortly after the end of World War II, when both the Soviet Union and the United States captured the technology and advanced German rocket experts.
The space race led to an unprecedented increase in spending on education and pure research, which accelerated scientific advancements and led to beneficial technologies for the population. Some famous probes and missions include Sputnik 1, Explorer 1, Vostok 1, Mariner 2, Ranger 7, Luna 9, Apollo 8 and Apollo 11.
The United States was successful in its goal of reaching the moon before the USSR in 1969, with the Apollo 11 mission. to achieve this goal, the Apollo Project involved a fantastic effort than $ 20 billion. The Apollo 11 mission landed on the lunar surface on July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin became the first men to walk on the lunar surface. After Apollo 11, six other Apollo missions were launched, five of which landed on the moon in total of twelve astronauts who walked on the moon.
It was famously the first astronaut to walk on the moon, Neil Armstrong , "That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.".