The period known as the New Republic starts with the forced resignation of Vargas in 1945 and in 1964 with the military coup.
After the departure of Vargas, General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president and took office the following year. In 1946 was promulgated new constitution restoring individual rights.
In 1950, Brazil gets World Cup Soccer. Despite losing the final to Uruguay by 2-1, definitely puts the country among the international scene, breaks all records in leaves and as the country's largest legacy Maracanã Stadium. Back in 1950 inaugurated the TV Tupi São Paulo.
This year, Vargas was once elected president, this time by direct vote instead. In his second administration Petrobras, the result of nationalist tendencies that received support layers of workers, intellectuals and student movement was created. However, times were not the same, and Vargas could not drive so well his government. Pressed by a series of events in 1954 Getulio Vargas commits suicide within the Presidential Palace. Assumes the vice-president, João Fernandes Campos Café Filho.
In 1955, Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president and took office in January 1956, although it has faced coup attempts. His rule was characterized by so-called developmentalism, doctrine held that the technical and industrial advances as supposed evidence of a general progress of the country. The motto of developmentalism under Juscelino was 50 years 5. In 1960, Kubitschek inaugurated Brasilia, the new capital of Brazil.
Already in 1961 Quadros took office, but resigned in August of the same year. Quadros, preached the moralization of the government, began his political career in the PDC and was elected with the support of UDN, did an adversarial government and attempted a rapprochement with the Soviet bloc for strictly economic purposes, but just was not the right interpretation in Brazil, which now boast panic with the imminence of communism.
The vice president João Goulart, popularly known as Jango, took on September 7, 1961 the presidency after a political crisis: the military did not want to accept him as president, saying the communist danger, namely that Jango was a sympathizer of Communism and maintained several Communists in his government. Apart from former Labor minister, Goulart was in China when the resignation Quadros. An intermediate solution is correct and settles parliamentarism in Brazil.
In 1963, however, João Goulart recovered the head of government with the referendum that approved the return of presidentialism. João Goulart ruled until April 1, 1964, when he took refuge in Uruguay ousted by military coup in 1964.