The period from 1930 to 1945, from the overthrow of President Washington Luis until the return to democracy in 1945, is called the Vargas Era, due to the strong control of Getulio Vargas Dorneles, who took control of the country in period.
On March 1, 1930 the last presidential election of the Old Republic takes place. Competed in this election the governor of São Paulo Julio Prestes de Albuquerque backed by President Washington Luis and by 17 states against the candidate Getulio Vargas supported by only 3 states: Minas Gerais, Paraiba and Rio Grande do Sul Julio Prestes was elected and acclaimed President but the losers did not recognize his victory.
Thus, in 1930, takes place the 1930 Revolution began on October 3. When the revolutionary troops marched to Rio de Janeiro, then the federal capital, is the October 24 military coup that deposed and President Washington Luis and form a Provisional, which then power the Getulio Vargas junta, ending the Old Republic and starting the Provisional Government. Shortly after taking power, Vargas appointed federal stakeholders to govern states.
The São Paulo, who maintained a scheme of political domination along with Minas Gerais during the first republic, try to articulate a revolution in 1932 to depose Vargas. The justification found by local oligarchies to seek support of the people is that the country needed a constitution, because since 1930, Vargas said provisionally assumed the presidency and that asap deliver a new constitution for the country, with the subsequent realization elections for president. Hence the name of the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932, triggered on July 9. After 3 months of struggle, which was Brazil's largest civil war of all time Getulio Vargas emerges victorious. Finally on May 3, 1933, elections to a Constituent National Assembly that elects Getulio Vargas in 1934 president of the republic are made.
In 1934, however , the country gains a Constitution. Vargas is elected president. This constitutional government lasted three years until 1937. Were troubled years in which certain polarization in national politics occurs.
Thanks to the climate of panic caused by political polarization, Getulio Vargas articulates a situation that allows you to enact a coup two months before the presidential election scheduled for January 1938. On November 10, 1937, Getulio Vargas announces the Estado Novo.
The primary justification for the coup is the existence of a communist plot to take power, backed by Moscow - is called the Cohen Plan. Later it was discovered that the plan was a set of agents of Getulio Vargas. The military support and the support of the middle class ensures the success of the coup, for some time growing fears that communism would bring about a revolution in Brazil.
Vargas can prolong his years of presidency until 1945. At the end of World War II, it made little sense that Vargas remained in power. Fascism was defeated and Vargas is forced to resign on October 29, 1945 by the armed.