46. Fascism

Fascism is a form of authoritarian nationalist political radicalism that came to prominence in the early twentieth century Europe. The fascists sought to unify his nation through a totalitarian state that promotes mass mobilization of the national community, relying on a vanguard party to start a revolution and organize the nation in fascist principles. Hostile to liberal democracy, socialism and communism, fascist movements share certain common features, including veneration of the State, devotion to a strong leader and an emphasis on ultra-nationalism, ethnocentrism and militarism. Fascism sees political violence, war, and imperialism as a means to achieve national rejuvenation and claims that nations and races as superior must make room by moving those considered weak or less, as in the case of fascist practice modeled by Nazism.

Fascism borrowed theories and terminology of socialism, but applied them from the point of view that conflict between nations and races were more significant than class conflict and was focused on ending the class divisions within the nation. Advocated a mixed economy, with the main objective of achieving local authority to ensure self-sufficiency and independence through national protectionism and economic policies that interleave interventionism and privatization. Fascism holds to what is sometimes called the third position between capitalism and Marxist socialism.

Influenced by national syndicalism, the first fascist movements arose in Italy, about the World War I, combining elements of the political left with more typically the right policy in opposition to socialism, communism, liberal democracy and, in some cases, conservatism of traditional right.

The appearance of fascism as a dominant force is a phenomenon of a few years can be dated precisely, it began in 1922 with the emergence of the Italian National Fascist Party led by Mussolini and ended in 1945 with the defeat and death of Mussolini and Hitler. Apart from Italy and Germany, there were prominent fascist movements in Austria, Belgium, Britain, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Spain and South Africa and Brazil.

46. Fascism

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