On November 15, 1889, Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca decreed the end of the imperial period in a military coup without popular support, starting a dictatorial Republican period , removing the last Brazilian emperor, Dom Pedro II, who had to leave in exile to Europe. The name of the country changed from Empire of Brazil to the United States of Brazil. The first constitution of the Republic of Brazil November 15, 1890 was made on. After 4 years of dictatorship and chaos several deaths and federalist, blacks fighting for their rights, among others, began the civil era of the Old Republic, with the call Oligarchic Republic.
The period was marked by numerous conflicts, of different natures such as Acre Revolution, which was the political and social process that led to the incorporation of the territory of the current state of Acre in Brazil in 1903.
This 1st republican period was marked by severe economic crises that put further contributed to the overall instability. In the political-social context, for example, between 1891 and 1927 several revolts and conflicts in the country as Contested War occurred. Also in this period, was the pinnacle of bandits and was its exponent in figure popularly known as Lampião.
While all these events were controlled by the central government and the majority were located character, the accumulation of these social and economic tensions were gradually undermining the regime, which, added to the effects caused by the crises of the depression of 1929 and the 1930 federal election, eventually leading to the 1930 movement that put an end to this first period of the republic in Brazil.
Between 1889 and 1930, the government was officially a constitutional democracy and, from 1894, the presidency alternated between the dominant states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. Because São Paulo were major producers of coffee , and the miners were focused on dairy production, the political situation of the period became known as the Coffee with milk policy.
This balance of power between the states, a policy was established by President Campos Sales, call Politics or Policy of the United governors. The Old Republic ended in 1930, with the Revolution of 1930, led by Getulio Vargas, a civilian, instituting the "Provisional Government" until new elections were called. The Brazilian Republic beginning in 1889 and going to the present day, over this phase between 1889 a1930 is known as the First Republic.