The Industrial Revolution along with the Independence of the United States and the French Revolution marks the transition the Modern Age to Contemporary Age. Industrial Revolution starts in 1760 and goes until 1830, just as a time reference, because the process of economic and social change took place gradually. The revolution began in the UK and in a few decades spread to Western Europe and the United States.
The Industrial Revolution is a watershed in the history and almost all aspects of everyday life of the time were influenced in any way by this process. This transformation included the transition from craft production methods to produce machines for the manufacture of new chemicals, new processes for producing iron, greater energy efficiency of the water, the increasing use of steam power, and the replacement of wood by coal.
The New Industrial Revolution that make the Scottish thinker Adam Smith seek to respond rationally to questions of time and write his book The Wealth of Nations in 1776, which is considered one of the founders of economic science works.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, from 1850 to 1870, plus a number of developments within the chemical, electrical industry, oil and steel occurs. Other key developments during this period include the introduction of steam-powered steel ships, the development of the airplane, the mass production of consumer goods, food canning, mechanical refrigeration and other preservation techniques and the invention of the electromagnetic telephone. This period is considered as the Second Industrial Revolution.
The United Kingdom has pioneered the process of the Industrial Revolution and helped maintain its hegemony during the nineteenth century, a period of rapid economic and technological progress, colonial expansion and the early struggles and achievements of workers. During most of the period, the British throne was occupied by Queen Victoria, from 1837 to 1901. At the end of the period, the search for new areas to colonize, and unload products massively produced in Europe produced a bitter dispute between the industrialized powers, causing many conflicts and a growing arms spirit that culminated later, at the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.