In general, it is considered that the medieval period of Western Philosophy lasted from the end of classical antiquity (fifth century) until the early Renaissance (XV century). In contrast to the poor records of other disciplines during the Middle Ages, the philosophy of this period was extremely rich and covers a number of eminent figures.
The first great medieval philosopher was St. Augustine (354-430), who tried to reconcile the philosophy of Plato with Christianity. Augustine had important influences not only the teachings of the Church, but also in philosophy and Western culture as a whole.
Another medieval figure of relief was Boethius (480-525), best known for the book The Consolation of Philosophy. However, his most important contributions to philosophy were translations of works of Greek philosophers into Latin. Boethius was one of the last Western Europeans to know Greek, and after his death, knowledge of the language has disappeared from European culture for centuries.
The First Medieval period ended with two important figures: Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) and Peter Abelard (1079-1142). St. Anselm is best known for having formulated the first analytical argument or "ontological" the existence of God in his book Proslogion. Abelard, besides being an important figure in the history of logic and semantics, is most famous for falling in love with his student Heloise, with whom he had a son and a famous correspondence exchanged, which would be a first and touching example of romantic love ideal.
The philosophy of the late medieval period has a very different character, in part due to the rediscovery, in the thirteenth century, the ancient Greek texts, especially Aristotle. The work of the major philosophers of this period are: Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), John Duns Scotus (1265-1308) and William of Ockham (1284-1347), was strongly influenced by Aristotle and each of them has provided important comments on articles Aristotelian individual.
Ockham is best known for the principle that bears his name, "Ockham's razor", which generally means that states that one should always prefer the simplest theory, or the theory should be as simple as possible.
However, the most important of the three was Thomas Aquinas, who synthesized the Aristotelian philosophy and Christian theology in a great philosophical and theological system. Since then Thomas Aquinas has exerted a major, if not decisive, influence on Catholic thought.
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