The Middle Ages or Dark Ages begins with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and ending in 1,453 with the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks.
Throughout this period the church had a strong influence on society. And Feudalism was the political, social and economic system of the time, with many European states were created at this time as France, England, Denmark, Portugal and Spain.
The first major empire in the Middle Ages is the Byzantine Empire, which was nothing more than the Eastern Roman Empire, namely, the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman Empire more with some differences as the Greek language as predominant in contrast to the Latin language the Roman West and also characterized by a Christian church in the empire State. This empire survived for over 1,000 years and its fall will be the milestone for the entry of humanity into the modern age.
Another highlight of the Middle Ages is the emergence of Islamic civilization with Islam, the religion founded by Muhammad, who soon after his death starts a period of Islamic expansion with the creation of a vast Muslim Arab Empire.
Already in western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and during the Middle Ages some people who were known as barbarians stood out among them Francs that influenced the creation of several European states such as Italy, Germany and France. The principal name of the Kingdom of the Franks was Charlemagne (742-814), which incorporated much of Western and Central Europe and was responsible for the revival of the arts, religion, and culture through the Catholic Church.
With the weakening of the successors of Charlemagne from the ninth century to the twelfth century, a new social organization, economic and political took hold with the name of feudalism which favored the strengthening of the church in religious, economic and political fields of the season and the appearance cavalry and consequently the Crusades.
The Crusades were military movements of Christian inspiration that left Western Europe toward the Holy Land (Palestine), and the city of Jerusalem with the conquest of intuited it, keeping Christian rule. These movements were spread between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, a time when Palestine was under control of the Muslim Turks.
During the thirteenth century, in 1,206 under the leadership of Genghis Khan, the Mongols were united and began an unprecedented expansion in 20 years that they have reached the Romans took centuries to build, resulting in the powerful Mongol Empire that reached the largest territorial extent of an empire in history, surpassed only by the British Empire in 1920.
With the unifying presence of the Mongols over a vast area of Asia revived trade in ancient caravan routes, it also helped the bubonic plague known as the Black Death to move toward Europe who would later wiped out one third of the time on the European continent.
Finally, the major events that occurred in the transition from the Middle Ages to the Modern Age were: